How to back up your website?

Website Back Up

Even in the offline world, people back up their paperwork preventing a possible data loss. With computers, we learned the importance of backing up regularly in case of a hardware or software failure, a virus, or other threat.

The same logic should operate for websites. You should have security copies of it. This can save you in case something goes wrong, but also in other common situations.

Why is it important to back up your website?

Prevent data loss. Besides the website’s data, more information is added from your users’ purchases, comments, visits, etc. 

Malware or/and hacking attack. If your security defenses are defeated, a backup of your website is key to get back on track faster and easier than to build it from zero. Down-time means income loss.  

Compatibility problems. Lack of compatibility while installing software to improve website’s functionality can produce problems. If it goes too bad, a backup will allow you to get back fast to the beginning. 

Update’s issues. To update is a responsible and regular practice, but sometimes the process can cause conflict among the different software components. Have a copy of your website to restore it quickly.

Migration to a different web hosting provider. This process requires transferring the complete database and files of your website to a new server. You need an updated copy.

Original website’s development vs. updated backup. Websites get more developed with time and new additions. What you need is a copy of the latest website’s version. 

How to back up your website?

Back up manually. This is the hardest method. It takes time, effort, but it works. A website has many files to back up, especially big ones. Be very focused not to miss a single one because the smallest loss can cause problems. Check every downloaded file, organize to avoid confusion, and remember to back up regularly. A good practice is to create an archive file with the complete directory instead of downloading file-by-file. Have more than only a copy on different hard drives.

Back up with rsync. Remote sync is a remote but also a local tool for transferring and synchronizing files. Through an algorithm, it can detect the segments of the files that have been modified to save them. It reduces the amount of data that has to be copied, takes less bandwidth and time. It works between a computer and an external hard drive and across servers. 

Back up directly from your cPanel. Click the backup icon and go on clicking until the process is finished. It’s really important to save the backup on a computer or an offline destination too. A common mistake is to back up without choosing the destination for the copy to be saved. Then, by default, it gets stored in the server. If it fails or shuts down, you simply don’t have a backup.

Back up using the cloud. This is an easy solution. Everything (database, content, themes, plugins…) will be safely backed up and available when you need it. There are different services for you to choose from. 

Back up through automated tools. There is software, free and paid. You can configure to make a copy of your website as frequent as you set it up, manually or automated, etc. Some of these tools have to be installed. Others are web-based. In general, they download backups via FTP. Every file and the database will be downloaded and even scanned to be sure they are free of malware. There are many choices. They add specific features to compete with others.


Backing up is a self-defense practice. Choose the choice that best suits your website’s needs and your budget. Redundant backups are essential. Don’t store only a copy. Save in more than one server or offline safe location. Guarantee you can immediately restore your website and don’t leave this task for tomorrow!

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DNS SRV record explained

DNS SRV record

Let’s investigate one more complicated DNS recourse record, the DNS SRV record. It is a very important one that points not only to the service, its location but also the exact port that it uses for communication. Let’s see the DNS SRV record in detail.

What is the DNS SRV record?

The DNS SRV record (service record) is a DNS record that is used to show the service’s port and hostname. What makes it different from other DNS records is that it specifies port too, and not the only hostname. That way, you can set through which port you want to be used a specified service.

It is a very useful DNS record for setting up a multi-host configuration. Now you can use multiple servers with different services with the same domain.

The DNS SRV record is very commonly used for APT, DANE, SMTP, POP, IMAP, SIP like Skype, Slack, etc.

DNS SRV record syntax:

_Service._Proto.Name TTL Class SRV Priority Weight Port Target

The components of the DNS SRV record are TYPE, TTL, NAME, PRIORITY, WEIGHT, PORT, TARGET.

What is a port?

When we are talking about computer networking, a port is the endpoint of communication. It is an identifier of a process or a type of network service. The ports have their specific number that is always related to IP addresses. It makes the origin or the destination complete.

Ports and ports’ numbers are digital, but if we want to make an analogy, let’s see an example with radio. 

A particular radio frequency is dedicated to FM radio. Imagine the FM radio as the port, and the exact frequency of your favorite FM station, like 98.2 MHz, is the exact port number.

Common port numbers are 20 (FTP Data Transfer), 21 (FTP Command Control), 22 (SSH), 23 (Telnet), 25 (SMTP), 53 (DNS), 67 (DHCP), 68 (DHCP), 80 (HTTP), 110 (POP3), 119 (NNTP), 123 (NTP), 143 (IMAP), 161 (SNMP), 194 (IRC), 443 (HTTPS).

What’s inside the DNS SRV record?

SERVICE – The short name of the service for which we are using the SRV.

PROTOCOL (PROTO) – here, we specify the protocol that we want to use for the communication like UDP, TCP, HTTP, HTTPS, etc.

NAME – the domain name for which the DNS SRV record is valid.

TTL – standard TTL field for a DNS record.


CLASS – Standard DNS field. You will see it with “IN”.

PRIORITY – You can have multiple hosts (servers) for the same service. The lower the number is, the higher the priority of the host is. The value must be between 0 and 65535. In case there are two hosts with the same priority, the weight parameter will determine the order.

WEIGHT – The weight is a selection mechanism for servers. A larger weight means a higher chance of getting connected. You can put higher weight (lower number) to a more powerful server, so it gets more connections. Again the number is between 0 and 65535.

PORT – The exact port like 53, 23, etc. It is a number between 0 and 65535.

TARGET – The hostname of the server that provides the service and ends with a “.”.


You now know what the SRV record is, why it is used and what’s inside one. Go ahead and use your newly-obtained knowledge for your configurations.

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What is two-factor authentication, and how does it work?

two-factor authentication

One of the most basic security methods is the creation of strong passwords. The problem is after time, we all need to create not one password but plenty of them. For the personal and job e-mail, banking, taxation, social networks, video streaming service, shopping, etc.

This is bait for hackers. By cracking passwords, they can access all possible sensitive data from people. Besides, many people use the same password for different accounts, they don’t change them regularly, and they use really predictable information. This makes the job really easy for the shady guys.

What is two-factor authentication?

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is an authentication method in which users must prove their identities through two different ways to access their accounts. If they don’t provide the correct two factors, access will be denied.

2FA strengthens security by adding a layer of protection. It stops unauthorized people from accessing your sensitive information. Even if they get your user and password, they won’t access directly to your account. An extra factor still is needed.

How does the two-factor authentication (2FA) work? 

2FA adds a step to the regular log-in process. Besides, enter regular credentials (user and password), the users’ fingerprint can be required, or a code that the user will receive via mobile. That involves a separated device from the one you are trying to access, either a scanner or a mobile phone, meaning fewer risks. Regularly such codes are built with at least six numbers. The fewer numbers a code has, the easier it is for hackers to try combinations until they get the right one. This code is generated every time a user attempts to log in (user and password). It is called a verification code, passcode, or authenticator. That way, the identity will be double-checked to prevent hackers.

Without the second factor/step, logging in won’t be possible.

2FA uses several factors. The most common categories are the following.

  • Biological factors. It includes biological aspects like humans’ voices, eye retina, or fingerprints. 
  • Possession factors. A piece of information that can be physically possessed. A USB drive or a plastic card you have to insert on a specific spot to access. 
  • Software factors. Proves of identity supplied by software (applications, cryptographic key, etc.).
  • Knowledge factors. Specific, confidential information to access an account. A particular keystroke, the answer to a question, a code sent to your mobile, etc. 

Types of two-factor authentication (2FA)

There are different technologies available on the market. As you will see, the different factors can be combined to offer you stronger security.

  • Location authentication. Some accounts can require a second step to check the user’s location. When the user logs in with regular credentials (step one), this action triggers the verification of the location based on IP address or GPS coordinates. If your business has permanent regions, countries, or areas of operation, this can be a choice for you.  
  • Biometrics. This technology has become very popular, and it already offers a wide menu of choices. To prove your identity, you have to pass a recognition test. From fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, iris, retina, or face recognition, to gait (walking style), typing style, odour, and much more. 
  • Audio messages or SMS. Codes can be sent to users via SMS or voice message. 
  • Software tokens. They are applications that users install to generate and/or receive the necessary code they need as a second factor for accessing an account.
  • Hardware tokens. These are physical tokens that generate codes or the extra piece of information necessary for users to have access. 


Don’t take security for granted! To crack simple credentials is a piece of cake for hackers. Protect your online accounts and sensitive data with two-factor authentication (2FA).

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Web hosting – explained for beginners

Web hosting

The process of creating a website, if you are passionate about your idea, is really exciting. Sometimes, as beginners, we think about important aspects like the design, content, a very attractive name, but we don’t consider the technical side.

One of the first needs that you will face is web hosting. Where on the Internet will your website live? Where are you going to store all its content and tech resources?

What is web hosting? 

It is the action of allocating space on a server to save all files (images, videos, text, code, etc.) belonging to a website. This action is a service provided by many different hosting companies. Web hosting is a must for your website (all the files that integrated it) to be accessed online. 

Think about it like the online space where your website will live. When you look for a web hosting provider, it’s like searching for an online home to rent. 

Types of web hosting

Servers are computers equipped with the necessary tech and connectivity to make your website available for the whole world or for a specific zone, whatever your goal is.

Thinking that a server will be your business home, you can get livable or a sophisticated, more or less independent and equipped home. Besides, there is a vast menu of plans and fees (even free choices) to cover all kinds of businesses’ needs. These are the main types of web hosting.

Shared hosting. It’s a cost-effective solution for beginners, small businesses, and even medium ones. You will have all the necessary tech features for your website to be online. What you need to consider is that many more websites will be hosted on the same server. And all of them will share the resources. If a “neighbor” has a special sale, it can suddenly get big loads of traffic. To manage such traffic will take more resources (bandwidth, processor power, RAM…). As a result, your website can be very sluggish. Put it bluntly, what happens to others, can negatively influence your site’s performance. 

Virtual Private Server (VPS). Again, your website will be hosted on the same server, next to many more “neighbors”. But there’s a big difference. Resources are not shared. Even living on the same server, every website has totally separated resources. No matter the e-shop next to you has a special sale, this won’t affect your site’s performance. It’s pretty affordable because to have many guests on the server means they all contribute to paying for the technology and maintenance of the server.

Dedicated server. This is a premium service. You can rent your own server for hosting only your website. No more sharing, bye “neighbors”. Absolutely all the resources and space will be for you to enjoy them. The price goes up considerably, but many big businesses for sure can afford this choice. If you have massive traffic and you look for total control of the server’s software, security systems, etc., this is for you. 

Cloud hosting. Traditional web hosting offers you to host the website through tech solutions installed on a server. Cloud hosting works through a network composed of multiple servers to host you. Scalability and flexibility are highlights of its infrastructure. 


If you are wondering which alternative to choose, the answer is, depending on what your website really needs and your budget. It’s easy to get dizzy while checking innovative and premium features, but why buy a private jet for a local trip around your city?

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How does Traceroute command work?

Traceroute command

By the name of this command, you already know what it does, but let’s go a bit deeper and see precisely how the Traceroute command works. When you learn how to use the Traceroute command, you will see how useful it is and how often you will need it in your daily network’s tasks.

What is the Traceroute command?

Traceroute is one of the built-in commands inside your OS (Linux, macOS, and even on Windows as a tracert command) that serves for network diagnostic and, more specifically, for tracing the route from a point to a target.

You can access it through the Terminal application and use it to target a hostname or an IP address. The query will give you information about each of the elements on the network, starting with the first hop, all the way to the target. You will get useful statistics. The results will show you how exactly a query travels. The information can help you understand the route better, see if there is some strange routing going on, and plan your future network expansion for better and faster query answering.

How does it work?

There are many routers spread all around the world that help us resolve domain names and other web services.

Traceroute command will show the exact path the packets of data takes to their target. When we trace the route from our computer, we will need to open the Terminal and type “traceroute + IP address” or “traceroute + hostname”. 

If we use Wikipedia, we can do it like this: 

traceroute, or traceroute

The typical Traceroute command will send 3 packets of data, so you will get 3 columns of answers. 

Each time a packet reaches a router (hop), it will report back to us with the hostname, the IP address, and the response time. 

You will see each hop in a different line. The total number of lines you can see in the first column of the result and shows the total number of hops. 

You can see the data each hop returns and see if there is a problem. A particular hop could be taking a too long time to respond, so you can increase the waiting time. Another problem that could occur is that the packet might get lost, but thanks to the traceroute command, you will know where exactly they get lost. This will be the problematic point that you can focus on and fix it. 

It works differently from the ping command because the Traceroute not only sends packets to the target but also pings each router on the way to the target and measures the route trip time for each of the routers.

The data packets have TTL values that show how far they can go. By default, it is set to 30, but you can set it to more or less. The value exists, so no packets are traveling forever on the Internet.

Traceroute command options

Here you have a few important options that you can try with the Traceroute command for more specific queries: 

traceroute -m 35 

In this case, we increased the TTL to 35, so if we are further away from our target, we will have 5 more hops to reach it than the default 30. 

traceroute -w 60

You can also increase the time to wait, not just the number of hops. That way, you can wait longer for a response but actually get one. 

traceroute -q 8

Here we are increasing the number of packets to 8, from the default 3. We can have a better view of the network with more packets sent. 

traceroute -T

With the Traceroute command, you can change the interface for your query. In this case, we use T for TCP, but you can use -I for ICMP or -I for IP. 

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Introduction to the Domain Name System (DNS)

Domain Name System - DNS

Running an offline business successfully doesn’t mean it will directly succeed online. The Internet is a different realm. It’s vital to understand its rules, methods, and its DNS. It’s complex but key for your online strategy to be more effective. 

What is DNS? 

Domain Name System (DNS) is the infrastructure that makes the Internet experience for humans as simple as it is nowadays. Its functionality is vast, but to start, it has in its core the database with the existent domain names and their corresponding IP addresses.

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How to hide your IP address

Hide IP Address

What is an IP address?

The IP address is a tag that each device that is connected to a network that uses IP (Internet Protocol) gets to identify the network and the location of a device on the network.

By seeing the IP address, you can see who the host of service is (the computer) and trace it to its location (where precisely it is placed).

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